Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used in the tourism industry to increase the efficiency of transactions and
create competitive opportunities Although the growth of the online travel business is not noticeable when compared to other countries. but began to play a role and
Familiarize yourself with tourists, such as buying electronic tickets (e-Tickets), making reservations, etc.
This article presents information technology in the tourism industry. Website development of tourism promotion organizations
and private entrepreneurs impact of information technology and human resource development guidelines that are in line with the online travel business
1. Characteristics of travel service products
Travel service products are products that rely on technology and information systems as the basis. Booking, ordering will focus on accuracy.
of information, which leads to the acquisition of desired physical goods and services, such as the purchase of air tickets Travelers begin by searching for information about seats, flights, schedules and prices, and then continue with activities such as booking, order confirmation. purchase agreement
If there is a change in the transaction, it will make changes to the data and information before reaching the product and service. travel products and services
There are many special features that differ from other physical products such as
Products and services have a very short lifespan. It’s simple and complicated , for example, a hotel that can’t sell a room in a timely manner results in a loss of revenue.
It is an invisible product and service. Can’t check the quality or try it before trading. Consumers feel risks and uncertainties. Therefore, the credibility of information is important for purchasing decisions.
Travel services products consist of basic goods or services that are put together. They differ by geography,
composition and characteristics .
Owners of goods and services cannot deliver goods to customers on their own , for example
by airlines flying to different locations. There can be agents but cannot have offices or distribution channels for many products in every route because
high fixed cost
It is a product that contains information as a component. When customers make purchase decisions, they will receive only abstract products and services. The form of goods and services therefore depends on information presented through various channels such as websites, storytelling, brochures, televisions, etc. The imperfections of the information market are one of the reasons why the value chain of the tourism market is required. There are many departments, organizations and businesses involved.
Tourism Management Organization (DMO) is the agency of the country that facilitates
convenience to consumers and suppliers of goods and services in accessing information and build confidence in the quality of information
A tour operator (Tour Operator) collects offers and services from the owner of the goods and services. is the main channel
and help reduce the cost of accessing information to consumers as well as reduce the cost of marketing information for the product owner or supplier
Travel agents are traditional intermediaries and perform a variety of functions, including information
brokers, passing information from owners to consumers. As a consultant to customers to provide assistance with products. tourist attraction
Acting as an intermediary and distributing travel services products to final consumers Help reduce uncertainty for consumers. Reduce service gaps
and reduce marketing information costs for product owners and travel management companies
A supplier or owner is a business unit that owns travel goods or services, such as airlines, transport companies, accommodation, car rentals, boats, restaurants, who provide services or are directly related to tourists, travelers.
Global Distribution Systems (GDS) are used to manage current inventory prices such as Amadeus, Galileo, Worldspan and SABER.
customers, tourists It is the most important element of the value chain. Service owners try to access customer data to study history. Develop knowledge of tastes, preferences, habits and buying behaviors The information obtained leads to business opportunities.
2. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Tourism Industry The tourism industry has introduced information technology.
and communication (ICT) as a tool in every element of the industry. Since the introduction of the reservation system by computer
(Computerized Reservations Systems or CRS) to use with airlines. and transformed into a global
distribution system (Global Distribution System: GDS) when the distribution system was developed via the Internet, enabling operators and customers in the industry
They have gained more benefits such as flexible and convenient transactions. Reach more customers low distribution costs
Easy to identify and target customers, can distribute products all over the world. and can use the mixed media to promote and
public relations However, internet transactions are flawed in the lack of interpersonal interaction in between.
Transactions or lack of incentives for continued sales of goods and services, the current developed countries will meet the demand.
Consumers with information and communication technology (ICT) through the main elements of tourism are as follows: ICT has been involved in various forms of transportation such as airlines, buses, taxis, equipment must be installed.
good communication Install a radio communication system, GPS system, and other assistive devices in order to provide customers with confidence in safety.
Airlines must be equipped with tools that provide a variety of information, such as climate. height and information systems used for communication
with other airlines and aircraft control stations Use of information technology for in-flight entertainment such as gaming,
Accommodation Tourists use information technology to access accommodation. Searching for accommodation sources at information destinations
That has been used to decide the price, number of days off. Searching can be done from home or work, saving costs.
Travel and contact time with travel agents, travelers can send information back to business or family during the trip.
It can be used for entertainment such as video, television, games, or as a substitute for a business trip such as a teleconference. In addition, information technology is used to manage accommodation such as computerized reservation system (CRS), billing system, receipt system, security system. modern telephone service In-room entertainment and internet access
tourist attraction It is necessary to communicate or inform tourists about the type of attraction, location, how to get there, the owner of the attraction must disseminate information through video, Internet, website, television advertising and brochures.
facilities At present, technology and information systems must be procured to increase efficiency. and facilitate
for tourists, such as issuing visas, passing through customs service booking system bag conveying system etc. It can be concluded that ICT
plays a role in the tourism industry as follows:
ICT creates opportunities to expand and accelerate the growth of the tourism industry
ICT is a tool to reduce costs in reaching target customers
ICT is a tool for collecting and distributing information. ICT knowledge
facilitates networking among stakeholders in the tourism industry.
ICT improves operational and management efficiency in the tourism industry.
ICT as a training tool Educate and build capacity for personnel in the tourism industry.
ICT has an effect on reducing and increasing employment.
Distribution of travel products and services via the Internet and computers.
Difficulty finding information to meet consumer needs And matching the exact requirements between service providers
and consumers, tourism businesses need to find tools to facilitate transactions, tools for managing distribution systems.
has been developed continuously All the time, entrepreneurs in the tourism industry need tools to help distribute.
in order to be able to meet the needs of consumers in a timely manner Distribution of tourism through the Internet and computers.
can be divided into 3 types
The Global Distribution Systems ( GDSs ) and
The Computer Reservation Systems ( CRSs) serve as intermediaries in the supply chain for the distribution of travel products
. use the phone is a service booking system Distributing and providing information services through computers which
Support the sale of seats on the airlines. and related products such as hotels and car rentals to sales departments all over the world as a link between the seller and
System users, including Travel agents The main GDS systems are Amadeus, Galileo, SABRE, and World Span.
The main system of the tourism industry and its importance today, hotels or airlines that are not connected to the GDS system will lose a lot of revenue
from the tourism business.
The Internet and ICT are tools that help tourism industry stakeholders access the tourism market to provide and receive services
. It is a tool that competes with the GDS system and causes travel intermediaries to reshape their business models because
The Internet allows consumers to cut off intermediaries. (Disintermediation) or change the use of intermediaries. (Reintermediation) from
traditional travel agents as agents in the online system.
Airlines is also a business unit that is a leader in developing new technologies to reduce distribution costs and create efficiency.
such as the use of electronic tickets (e-Tickets), the use of automatic check-in systems
3. Online Travel Online travel is the most successful e-commerce. Travel service booking
Online accounts for 25% of all travel bookings.
3. Travel business website The tourism industry is a very competitive industry when organizations, agencies,
using the Internet as a distribution channel public relations Competitiveness in building the integrity of information presentations
And designing the website to have a beautiful appearance (Appearance) is important to bring to sales. because of tourism products
It is a product that relies on information as the main component apart from the physical product and service. Comparison of the appearance
of the website (Appearance) can be divided into many dimensions such as beauty and completeness of information content. web developer
Must pay attention to the properties of information. Knowledge of techniques such as information access, review, security
Personnel in the organization must have discipline and care about information such as keeping information up-to-date, current, accurate and
complete. At the same time, it takes someone with knowledge of graphics to make a website look attractive.
But it is accessible and easy to use.
Tourists need different travel information at different times of their travels. tourists search for information
before traveling to help you decide or plan your trip when arriving at the destination need information to solve problems found in
during the trip or search for a place what attracts attention After a trip, travelers want to share their experiences, provide
feedback, suggestions and complaints, so a successful website design is about meeting expectations.
and customer needs Design starts with identifying needs. expectations and problems After that, design a website.
to meet the needs expectation or problem solving The key design criterion is navigation.
Consistency, results, visualization and quality assurance As well as checking the properties of a good website. Features of a good website
include the ability to search. speed of access Calling a website or Download is a website that can be modified
(Dynamic) information can be adapted to the needs. interesting and enough Various technologies are used, sound, animation,
video and interactive maps are used to make the website attractive and well-known. Well-designed and presented, the
service can be booked immediately. There is maintenance, care and updating of information. There are connections to other websites. and have made advertisements public relations
both online and offlineCreating a website should be grouped with information to suit tourists according to market opportunities.
Marketing niche groups such as singles market, teenagers, vacation after graduation career change retirement period vacation
Including the presentation of information for the audience, such as information for general tourists, business customers, mass media
and tourism organizations. Currently, tourism trends in the Asia-Pacific region have changed from the original. such as focusing
on activities and travel experiences development of low-cost airlines Transformation of Travel Agents
to Travel Consultants The continued growth of online transactions. Tourism that adapts to needs
(Customized Tours) of each customer attaches great importance to communication and accuracy of information
(UNWTO OMT IOHBTO, 2006). Therefore, the format of travel products and services offered on the website must be consistent with their requirements.
consumer behavior and adjust to keep up with the changes that occur
3.1 Main tourism websites of different countries From a comparative study of 32 travel websites
, selected from countries where international tourists are most popular. and countries ranked according to the tourism competitiveness index
Found that each website has a similar function or main menu on the home page. Because it is the main service or information that tourists generally want.
but differ in details and completeness of information including the image, beauty, function or main menu that must appear on the first page
of the website
3.2 Singapore and Thailand websites
The study of the Singapore and Thailand websites aimed to compare the differences between the two websites.
to be used as a guideline for improving the tourism website of Thailand
From the comparison of the main websites of tourism in Singapore and Thailand, it is found that they are similar in beauty, but there are two quite obvious differences: completeness, completeness of information. Information and Service and linking from the main website to the relevant website in Singapore has a better way of presenting it. There are also more interesting points as follows – The layout of the main content of the Singapore website meets the needs of tourists and is easier to understand than the Thailand website – The Singapore website puts all the travel-related information on the main page. But Thai websites must combine information from many websites to get complete information – The content layout of the Tourism Authority of Thailand website lacks a holistic analysis of the needs of tourists. It is the combination of information for each province. Although it provides details, ท่องเที่ยว it may not be suitable for tourists who do not know Thailand well enough to search for information by provinces, which are sub-destinations. Linking the website of Singapore is better than Thailand because it will open sales for other products. related to tourism (Cross Selling), such as tourism for health Educational tourism, etc. – Singapore’s website offers information in a storytelling manner to better capture the attention of tourists, such as 20 unique activities to do in Singapore, the story of The Merlion, the symbol of Singapore. Food and attractions categorized according to interests. health tourism Educational tourism, etc. – Singapore’s website offers information in a storytelling manner to better capture the attention of tourists, such as 20 unique activities to do in Singapore, the story of The Merlion, the symbol of Singapore. Food and attractions categorized according to interests. health tourism Educational tourism, etc. – Singapore’s website offers information in a storytelling manner to better capture the attention of tourists, such as 20 unique activities to do in Singapore, the story of The Merlion, the symbol of Singapore. Food and attractions categorized according to interests.
3.3 Thai private tourism websites
A study of the websites of private companies doing tourism business. This is a comparative study of data from 79 websites
to analyze their functions. Providing services and information After that, they were grouped into groups to find relationships